Analyzing Facebook Webchat Sessions with Bro

2011-06-12 2012-11-24
bro browser reverse engineering traffic analysis

Update (November 24, 2012): After Facebook switched to HTTPS only, this script no longer works with life traffic.

The Facebook webchat allows you to chat with your friends while having a Facebook window open in the browser. In this post, I describe how the webchat protocol works and show how to write a Bro script that analyzes chat sessions.

The Facebook Webchat Protocol

Facebook Behind the scenes, the webchat utilizes a long-lived AJAX connection to send messages between the user and the Facebook server. A user that logs in automatically opens such a connection, destined to ^([0-9]+\.)+channel\$, to receive asynchronous status updates (e.g., notifications that your friends are currently typing). Whenever Facebook wants to notify you, it encodes a message into a JSON object and ships it back to you where some JavaScript munges on it. This AJAX channels contains both control and data which creates an event-based communication channel to deliver a low-latency user-experience on the client side.

As a traffic analyst, you might wonder how one can get insight into the webchat protocol details and how to work with it at a higher level. After all, who wants to write boilerplate code whose only purpose is to fight the representation of the data rather than analyzing the data itself? Let us extract messages from a Facebook webchat conversation and put them into Bro data structures where they are easy to manipulate, print, and react upon. This involves parsing the JSON objects, which look like this:

for (;;);{"t":"msg","c":"p_100002331422524","s":4,\

The above example is an unfocus_chat event sent over the AJAX channel, indicating that the user placed the focus somewhere else on the page, away from the chat window. Here is another HTTP body:

for (;;);{"t":"msg","c":"p_100002331422524","s":6,"ms":[{"msg":{
  "text":"So I need the URL, dude.  What is it?","time":1303218454567,\
  "to":100002297942500,"from_name":"Mondo Cheeze","from_first_name":"Mondo",\
  "from_gender":2,"to_name":"Udder Kaos","to_first_name":"Udder",\

This one is an actual chat message. The nice thing is that such messages are self-contained and include quite some meta information: contents, timestamps, names, unique IDs, and even genders.

The Bro Script

Alas, the HTTP body is a big fat opaque string with no structure and parsing nested data in strings with just regular expression is clunky at best. (For those who have spare cycles: an extremely useful project would be to create a Bro analyzer that exposes first-class types of the DOM tree of a document and script-level primitives for basic JavaScript analysis.) A crude way to do this is splitting the string on ,", then finding the right key-value pairs, and populating the following Bro data structures with the parsed data:

type chat_message: record
    timestamp: string;  # Message timestamp.
    from: string;       # Name of the sender
    to: string;         # Name of the recipient.
    text: string;       # The actual message.

type chat_session: record
    start: time;        # Unix timestamp of first message.
    end: time;          # Unix timestamp of last message.
    n: count;           # Total number of messages in session.

At this point it is easy to generate NOTICES with chat messages, look for suspicious messages, and more generally, leverage Bro’s full scripting language more effectively. I wrote a basic script that uses these data types to dump a chat session between two buddies. You can download it as a github gist. Here is the output of facebook.bro of a sample Facebook webchat session:

1303218454567 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) So I need the URL, dude.  What is it?
1303218465938 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) the URL?
1303218474259 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) Yeah for the secret image
1303218481721 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) ok lemme see
1303218495626 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) Someone could be sniffing this conversation, be sure to send it safely
1303218503972 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) ?
1303218570782 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) Cmon we talked about this.  Encrypt it with WonderCipher-92 \
                                           and send me the Base64 encoding of the hex.  Usual key.
1303218587568 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) 'k.  So here it is:
1303218595067 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) NmQwMDJjZDdhZTdlYmYxNTc5MGVjZDc1YTYxNDk1OGE0ZTRhYjAzOTVi
1303218618252 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) What's the IV
1303218624712 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) huh?
1303218637197 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) Initialization vector, you maroon.  WC-92 is a stream cipher, you know
1303218667601 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) oh yeah.  I used my birthday, all as one number.
1303218685436 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) you *do* remember it, right?
1303218700515 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) yeah your an April Fool, not hard to remember
1303218710402 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) heh
1303218718486 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) K gimme a sec to decrypt then.
1303218733463 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) Hey idiot this isn't the secret, it's Google's home page.
1303218745028 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) whoops hang on, blew my cut&paste
1303218767633 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) okay, here's the right one:
1303218776922 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) NmQwMDJjZDdhZTdlYmYwMDY3MGRjZDdlYjA1NDlhODQ0ZjA1YmEyNDRm
1303218800303 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) And?
1303218807537 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) and what
1303218815022 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) What's the IV
1303218824330 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) huh?
1303218839537 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) yo maroon same thing as we just discussed a moment ago, sheesh
1303218855518 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) oh that yeah like I said my birthday
1303218869728 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) You used the same IV as before????
1303218889893 (Udder Kaos -> Mondo Cheeze) right, otherwise how would I remember it?
1303218900257 (Mondo Cheeze -> Udder Kaos) YOU BOZO

In summary, this is an example of how to translate low-level representation of communication into higher abstractions that are easier to work with. After creating first-class Bro types for the involved entities, one can now leverage the real power of Bro’s scripting language.

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